European art time starts with the Proto-Renaissance, exemplified by the Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone (1270-1337) and from that point incorporates art styles and developments of the fifteenth century, for example, the Early Renaissance (Piero della Francesca, Leonardo), the Northern Renaissance of Flanders, Holland, Germany and England (Jan Van Eyck), the sixteenth century which incorporated the High Renaissance (Michelangelo), the Venetian Renaissance (Tintoretto) and Mannerism (El Greco), the seventeenth century highlighting the Baroque style (Peter Paul Rubens) and the Dutch Realism School (Jan Vermeer), lastly the eighteenth century which saw Rococo (Francois Boucher), Neoclassicism (Jacques Louis David) and Romanticism (Goya).
How great a painter must be to qualify as an Old Master, isn’t clear. Practically speaking, the majority of the outstanding artists from the above period fall into the classification. While shunned by most art historians for its ambiguity, the term is regularly employed by displays and art auctions to brand and separate the incomparable European artists of yesteryear from the well known painters of the modern era. Painting by European notable artists hang in the greater part of the best art exhibition halls, similar to the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg, the Louver Museum in Paris, the Pinakothek Museum in Munich, the Prado Museum in Madrid, the Tate Gallery in London, the Uffizi Gallery in Florence and the Vatican Museum in Rome, and also top open displays in America, for example, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
Notable composers Period – GOTHIC – PROTO-RENAISSANCE
Cimabue (Cenni di Peppi) (1240-1302)- otherwise called Cenni di Pepo was an Italian painter and designer of mosaics from Florence. Although vigorously affected by Byzantine models, Cimabue is for the most part viewed as one of the primary extraordinary Italian painters to part from the Italo-Byzantine style. While medieval art at that point was scenes and structures that showed up moderately level and highly stylized Cimabue’s figures were portrayed with more-advanced lifelike proportions and shading than other artists of his time. As per Italian painter and history specialist Giorgio Vasari, Cimabue was the teacher of Giotto, the main extraordinary artist of the Italian Proto-Renaissance. In any case, numerous researchers today tend to discount Vasari’s case by refering to earlier sources that recommend something else.
Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337)- known mononymously as Giotto was anItalian painter andarchitect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages. He worked during the Gothic/Proto-Renaissance period. His notable woks include Scrovegni Chapel frescoes, Campanile.
Jean Pucelle (c.1290-1334)- was a parisian Gothic-era manuscript illuminator who excelled in the invention of drolleries as well as traditional iconography. He is considered one of the best miniaturist of the early 14th century.He worked primarily under the patronage of the royal court and is believed to have been responsible for the introduction of the arte nuovo of Giotto and Duccio to Northern Gothic art. His work shows a distinct influence of the Italian trecento art Duccio is credited with creating. His style is characterized by delicate figures rendered in grisaille, accented with touches of color. His works include The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, a private prayer book done as a royal commission for the queen of France, Jeanne d’Évreux (c. 1324–28).
Gentile da Fabriano (c.1370-1427) – was an Italian painter known for his participation in the International Gothic painter style. He worked in various places in central Italy, mostly in Tuscany. His best-known works are his Adoration of the Magi from the Strozzi Altarpiece, (1423) and the Flight into Egypt.
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)- was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor. He was one of the founding fathers of the Renaissance. He is best Known for: Architecture, sculpture, mechanical engineering. His notable works include :Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore.
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (1386-1466)- better known as Donatello was an Italiansculptor of the Renaissance. Born in Florence, he studied classical sculpture and used this to develop a complete Renaissance style in sculpture, whose periods in Rome, Padua and Siena introduced to other parts of Italy a long and productive career. He worked with stone, bronze, wood, clay, stucco and wax, and had several assistants, with four perhaps being a typical number. Though his best-known works were mostly statues in the round, he developed a new, very shallow, type of bas-relief for small works, and a good deal of his output was larger architectural reliefs. His works are St. George, David, Equestrian Monument of Gattamelata.
Giovanni di Paolo (c.1400-82)- Was born in the Sienese quarter of Poggio dei Malavolti, near Sant-Agostino, it was uknown how he acquired his skills in drawing and sketching, although it is presumed that he was taught by followers of Taddeo di Bartolo (1362-1422) and Gregorio di Cecco (c.1390-1428).Giovanni di Paolo specialized in small-scale religious paintings.
Fra Angelico (c.1400-55)- was a florentine painter,a highly professional artist,he began his career as a manuscript illuminator.his most famous works were painted here (now an Angelico museum)painted about fifty frescos in the friary (c.1438-45)expression of and a guide to the spiritual life of the community.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452-1519)-more commonly referred to asLeonardo da Vinciwas an Italian polymath of the high Renaissance whose work was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, military engineer,mathematician , His works are the “Vitruvian Man,” “The Last Supper” and the “Mona Lisa.”
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)- Also known as Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance, he was conceived in the Republic of Florence he is the best-archived artist of the sixteenth century. He sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. In spite of holding a low assessment of painting, he likewise made two of the most persuasive frescoes in the history of western art: the scenes from Genesis on the roof of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, and The Last Judgment on its special altar wall. His plan of the Laurentian Library pioneered Mannerist engineering. Michelangelo was the first Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino(1483-1520)-generally known as Raphael was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is appreciated for its lucidity of form, simplicity of composition, and visual accomplishment of the Neoplatonic perfect of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he frames the traditional trinity of extraordinary experts of that period. In 1514, Pope Julius II hired Raphael as his chief architect.His famous works include Resurrection of Christ,The Holy Trinity,The Creation of Eve from Adam,Angel Holding a Scroll,God the Father and the Virgin Mary.
Antonio Allegri da Correggio(1489-1534)-usually known as Correggio. Antonio Allegri was born in Correggio, Italy, a small town near Reggio Emilia.his known for fresco,painting .His notable works are jupiter and lo Assumption of the virgin.