EARLY HISTORY OF SCULPTURE

The sculpture is likely the most beautiful, concrete, spatial and exotic nature. In contrast to most works of art, the sculpture does not imagine, does not mirror the truth. The sculpture is just – in the entirety of its simplicity and reality. Probably because the first imaginative motivation has provoked a prehistoric man to do a clumpsy, but unique in its sacred sculpture.

Remains a mystery why the earliest works of art (sculpture and painting) originate from Central Europe, not the “fruitful bow” is considered as the cradle of civilization.Admittedly, the objects considered by historians to be found in Morocco and the Golan Heights. Paleolithic (from around 300,000 BC), yet the objects must have temporary worker to artistic talent developed in areas extending from France to present Ukraine in the Upper Paleolithic time frame (40,000 – 14,000 BC).

For what reason is the art of sculpture and painting (the cave) was conceived in Europe, at that point disappeared for a hundred centuries – don’t we’ll most likely never.

Typical symbol of the Stone Age is a woman – an image of richness. figurines called “Venus” were produced using a soft stone, ivory, and the popular examples from Austria, Germany, Moravia, and Ukraine.

Found in the Hittite bulkheads Catal Höyük seated figure of the Mother Goddess from around 7400-7300 BC, is a book in an efficient and hierarchical society.

      

Mesopotamia

In the 6th millennium BC in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), the first developments establish the start of the empire of Sumer and Akkad. sculpture in these areas was performed with the basalt, sandstone and alabaster, and for little objects, and as well bigger sculptures decorating likewise copper, gold, silver, lapis lazuli, shell fragments and a variety of valuable stones. The pottery and clay figurines were made of terracotta.

SUMER AND ACAD

Votive relief of King Lagash - Ur-Nanshe, 2550-2500 BC, Telloh Stela Narām-Sîna, king of Akkad, celebrating the victory over the Lullubi people from Zagros, 2190 - 2154 BC Sitting Gudea, Prince Lagash, 2120 BC (Neosumerian, Telloh Praying, alabaster, 2400 BC, Telloh

BABYLONIA AND ASYRIA

The start of Babylonia’s history was the government of Hammurabi (1750 BC), the maker of the popular codex. The sculpture portraying this ruler still has numerous featuresof Sumerian art. figures of the goddess Ishtar originate from this period, which was known as the mother of gods, the light of the world, the river of life, and so forth. Most of the preserved objects are bas-reliefs eadorning the palaces of subsequent rulers of the Assyrian state, sharing numerous features in common with the later art of Persia.

Stela Narām-Sîna, king of Akkad, celebrating the victory over the Lullubi people from Zagros, 2190 - 2154 BC Lamassu , a relief from the palaces of Sargon II in Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq), around 713-716 BC Genius with a flower , relief from the palaces of Sargon II in Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq), around 713-716 BC

 

Persia

In Persian art, the sculpture is entirely connected with architecture and appears almost exclusively in the form of a relief decorating the walls of palace chambers and frontages of inner-city streets. Human figures are presented schematically, the lack of individualizing features draws attention to the extremely precise development of a stylized detail (hair style, beard). A frequent motif (already present in Assyrian art) is Lamassu – a protective deity depicted as a winged bull with a human head, flanking honorary entrances and palace gates.
The most magnificent collection of Persian sculptures is in Persepolis , a city founded in 518 BC by Dariusz I and destroyed by Alexander the Great in 330 BC.

Symbolic Zaratusrtian bas-relief depicting a fighting bull (Earth) with a lion (Sun) Persian soldiers, palace in Persepolis, Palace of Darius I in Persepolis Lamassu , a relief from the palaces of Sargon II in Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq), around 713-716 BC Dobrze zachowany relief z czasów Achemenidów w Persepolis

EGYPT

Figures on the ancient Egyptian temple in Abu Simbel. Formerly a form of the temple. , priests, officials and members of her families.
Except for a short period of the re-birth of Pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, when there are elements of realism, the sculpture of the deceased to eternal life. Set it at the entrances to the tombs, and to provide him with immortality.Therefore, not celebrated sculptors of the individual features of the portrayed person.
Presentation of form of sculptures in stiff poses – standing, sitting or kneeling, sitting on the hands of the people, sitting on the knees, the Pharaoh was always more than others subjected to it. Avoided by breaking up lumps too much. They were part of a monolith.
All the sculptures were polychrome, even if they were made of precious materials. Colors a little its symbolism. Women and civil servants in middle-aged painted bright yellow color, men in their prime brownish-red color.Red was the vitality, the divine attribute of blue, black fertility of the Nile, which was born in Egypt. Eyes as performed with crystals and gemstones.
Due to the conventionality of imaging important role.

Short-lived, a revolution in art and in the whole organization of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep IV moved (around 1350 BC – 1918 Dynasty), which deprived the government of the priests, temples received huge estates, and introduced a monotheistic religion and reformed (by his court sculptor Tutmosis) the canon of sculptural art. Amenhotep IV, after the reforms, Akhenaten .
The new style is characterized by the prolongation of forms and members, long necks, elongated faces and amazing “sexlessness” forms. Do not avoid the ugliness, broke the stillness and lack of perspective.The Akhenaten of Tutmosis, the beginning of the study of the pharaoh.
A realistic style of sculpture in Pharaoh Tutankhamen , Akhenaten moved to Tel-el-Amarna reinstated the validity of the traditional canon.
A special kind of Egyptian sculptures are called uszebti . These were mostly done with polychrome terracotta figurines in the afterlife, a variety of work for the deceased.Uszebti appeared in the Middle State, and since 1918 a proliferation of the dynasty. There were cases of a thousand figures in one tomb .

Sculptures at the entrance to the temple of Ramses II in Abu Simbel, Nubia, around 1230 BC Sitting Gudea, Prince Lagash, 2120 BC (Neosumerian, Telloh Statue of Hemiun from the tomb in Giza Uszebti figurinesNefertiti, wife of Akhenaten, Thutmosis, 1345 BC

CYCLADES

Cycladic culture flourished around 2500 BC, and the product of silver jewelry. But especially characteristic of this culture are the idols – marble statues of various sizes and varying degrees of development of detail – from the simplest, even primitive forms is more complex geometric Representations of people, Including musicians playing instruments.
The end of Cycladic art sets a volcanic eruption on the island of Thera in the fifteenth century BC.

The figures of musicians from the tomb in Keros, circa 2000 BC

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