Printmaking production process

Printmaking is the process by which composed images of letters, characters and illustration are transferred into a permanent print form. printmaking involves the creation of a master plate from which multiple images are made. Simply put, the artist chooses a surface to be the plate. This could be linoleum, styrofoam, metal, cardboard, stone or any one of a number of materials. Then the artist prepares the printing plate by cutting, etching or drawing an image onto the plate. Ink is applied (in a variety of ways) and paper is pressed onto the plate either by hand or by way of a hand-run printing press. The finished print is pulled from the plate.

Methods of printing

Offset:

Metal-Letterpress-print-making

it is an age long printing technique of relief printing that requires applying ink on a raised surface or metals types. The metal types are rest against paper and the images on the metal types are transferred on the paper. Letterpress printing was the normal form of printing text from its invention by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century until the 19th century and remained in wide use for books and other uses until the second half of the 20th century.

Offset:

Offset printing

 Another name for offset is planographic, in this case you’re printing without setting types . This is a printing process that transfers images of letters, characters and illustrations from a flat metal surface through a process called lightography. 

Lightography is a technique of chemical printing by which greasing ink is applied on the flat metal which has been treated in such a manner that areas containing images of letters, characters and illustrations attract ink but repels water. Areas of the metals not carrying images of letters, characters and illustrations attract water but repels ink.

Intaglio:

intaglio

This printmaking technique involves transfer of images of letters, characters and illustrations from the surface of the screen to the printed underneath. Ink is applied on the surface of the ink and image applied beneath the screen on the surface of the paper, clothing materials, plastics etc. This describes prints that are made by cutting the picture into the surface of the printing plate. Using a sharp V-shaped tool – called a burin – the printmaker gouges the lines of an image into the surface of a smooth polished sheet of metal or in some cases a piece of plexiglass. To make a print, ink is pushed into the lines of the design. The surface is then wiped clean so that the only areas with ink are the lines. A sheet of paper which has been soaked in water is then placed on the plate which is run through a printing press. The paper is literally forced into the small lines that have been cut into the plate. A variation of this technique is known as etching. With etching, acids are used to eat into the metal plate.

Stencil: Serigraphy

A stencil method of printmaking is a sheet of paper, fabric, plastic, metal or other material with designs cut, perforated or punched from it. Ink is forced through the openings onto the surface (paper, fabric etc.) to be printed. Sometimes called silk screening, serigraphy (seri means silk) is a type of stencil printing. A stencil is fastened to a sheet of silk which is tightly stretched across a wooden frame. Or, an area of the silk is “blocked out” using glue, gum arabic or shellac. The frame is placed against the material to be printed. A squeegee (rubber mounted in wooden handle) is used to push the ink through the open areas onto the material or paper below.

 

 

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