Elements of design are the essential parts or aspects used to make any work of design. They are the parts, the segments that can be isolated and characterized in any visual design, they are the structure of the work, the objects to be arranged and used as a major aspect of any composition. The elements include line, color, shape, form, texture, tone, value, space etc.
Line: is the foundation of all drawing , line in an artwork can be used in characterized way. It can be used to suggest shapes, pattern, form, distance and movement. Types of lines include: curved lines, horizontal lines, vertical lines, thick lines, thin lines, continuous lines etc.
Shapes: it is an enclosure created by a given line that touches itself with a define boundary such a boundary can be referred to as outline. Shape can be regular or irregular, flat (2 dimensional) or solid (3 dimensional) representational abstract.
Tone: It defines the lightness or darkness of a colour. Tone is used to create a contrast of light and dark in drawing.
Colour: is the visual element that has the strongest effect on our emotions. We use colour to create the mood of an artwork.
Pattern: pattern is made by repeating the elements of an artwork to communicate a sense of balance, harmony. There are two basic types of pattern in art: NATURAL PATTERN and MANMADE PATTERN.
Texture: is the surface quality of an artwork. The roughness and smoothness of the material from which it is made. Texture can be feel in two ways: OPTICALLY (through sight) and PHYSICALLY (through touch).
Principles of art
are some guides or decisions needed by an artist. The principles include balance, proportion, rhythm, focus/dominance and unity.
Balance: is the distribution of elements in deign such as that equal weight is given to all parts as much as visually possible. We feel comfortable when the part of an artwork seems to balance each other.
Proportion: referred to the size, relationship between object and even the subparts of objects using certain ratio.
Rhythm: it is a kind of flow achieved by arranging the various art elements in a repeated manner. Rhythm can only be achieved when the various elements and principle of design are put into places.
Focus/Dominance: this is the art of making certain part of an artwork to attract more attention than the others by varying size, shape, colour and other elements.
Unity: it occurs when all of the elements of a place combine to make a balance.